(Greek form; Egyptian Neb-hut, Nebthet)
"Mistress of the House". Egyptian goddess of the dead. Daughter of Geb and Nut. Sister of Isis, Osiris and Seth. According to one tradition, she was also the mother of Anubis by Osiris. Her principal sanctuary was at Heliopolis. Along with Isis, she was one of the guardians of the corpse of Osiris. Depicted in human form wearing a crown in the form of the hieroglyph for house. Sometimes depicted as a kite guarding funeral bier of Osiris.
"Throne". Egyptian mother goddess. Daughter of Geb and Nut according to the Heliopolitan genealogy. Sister and wife of Osiris. Mother of Hours. She was depicted in human form, crowned either by a throne or by cow horns enclosing a sun disk. A vulture was also sometimes incorporated in her crown. She is sometimes depicted as a kite above the mummified body of Osiris. As the personification of the throne, she was an important source of the pharaoh's power. Her cult was popular throughout Egypt, but the most important sanctuaries were at Giza and at Behbeit El-Hagar in the Nile delta. Isis later had an important cult in the Greco-Roman world, with sanctuaries at Delos and Pompeii. Her Latin epithet was Stella Maris, or "star of the sea".
It was Isis who retrieved and reassembled the body of Osiris after his murder and dismemberment by Seth. In this connection she took on the role of a goddess of the dead and of funeral rites. Isis impregnated herself from the corpse and subsequently gave birth to Hours. She gave birth in secrecy at Khemmis in the Nile delta and hid the child from Seth in the papyrus swamps. Hours later defeated Seth and became the first ruler of a united Egypt. Isis, as mother of Hours, was by extension regarded as the mother and protectress of the pharaohs. The relationship between Isis and Hours may also have influenced the Christian conception of the relationship between Mary and the infant Jesus Christ. The depiction of the seated holding or suckling the child Hours is certainly reminiscent of the iconography of Mary and Jesus.
Lady of heaven.
Cult Center: Dendera and throughout Egypt
Attributes: .Because her worship stretches back to pre-dynastic times, we find Hathor identified with many local goddesses, and it can be said that all the goddesses were forms of Hathor. At times we find her playing the role of a sky-goddess, a sun-goddess, a moon-goddess, a goddess of the east, a goddess of the west, a goddess of moisture, a goddess of fertility, an agricultural goddess, and a goddess of the underworld.
. . . . .Hathor was the goddess of joy, motherhood, and love. She was considered the protectress of pregnant women and a midwife. She was the patron of all women, no matter their station in life. As the goddess of music and dancing her symbol was the sistrum. As a fertility goddess and a goddess of moisture, Hathor was associated with the inundation of the Nile. In this aspect she was associated with the Dog-star Sothis whose rising above the horizon heralded the annual flooding of the Nile. In the legend of Ra and Hathor she is called the "Eye of Ra."
. . . . .In later times, when the Osiris cults gained popularity, her role changed. She now welcomed the arrival of the deceased to the underworld, dispensing water to the souls of the dead from the branches of a sycamore and offering them food. Hathor was also represented as a cow suckling the soul of the dead, thus giving them sustenance during their mummification, their journey to the judgment hall, and the weighing of their soul. In the Late Period, dead women identified themselves with Hathor, as men identified with Osiris. . . . . .
Representation: Hathor was originally worshipped in the form of a cow, sometimes as a cow with stars on her. Later she is represented as a woman with the head of a cow, and finally with a human head, the face broad and placid, sometimes she is depicted with the ears or horns of a cow. She is also shown with a head-dress resembling a pair of horns with the moon-disk between them. Sometimes she is met with in the form of a cow standing in a boat, surrounded by tall papyrus reeds. As the "Mistress of the Necropolis" she is shown as the head of a cow protruding from a mountainside. In this case she wears a menat necklace, which is a symbol of rebirth.
Relations: Daughter of Nut and Ra. Wife of Ra, mother of Ihy. Many legends portray her as the mother of Hours the Elder. Other as the wife of Hours of Edfu, The fruit of this union was Hours the Younger .
Cerridwen (Wales) Moon Goddess, Great Mother. Death, fertility, regeneration, inspiration, magic, astrology, herbs, science, poetry, spells, knowledge.
Don/Donmu (Ireland, Wales) Queen of the Heavens, Goddess of sea and air. Equivalent of the Irish Danu--(sometimes called a God and Goddess). In Ireland, Don ruled over the land of the Dead.
Macha (Ireland) Mother of Life and Death, a war Goddess.
The Morrigu, Morrigan (Ireland, Wales, and Britain) Supreme War Goddess, Specter Queen, shape shifter. Reigned over the battle field, not joining in, but using her magick. Goddess of war, fate, and death.
White Lady (known to all Celtic countries) Dryad of Death, Queen of the Dead.
The Norns (Urd, Verdande, and Skuld), are the Norse equivalent of the Greek Fates. It is they who determine the orlogs (destinies) of the Gods and of Man, and who maintain the World Tree, Yggdrasil.
The goddess of the dead and the afterlife was Hel (Holle, Hulda), and was portrayed by the Vikings as being half-dead, half alive herself. The Vikings viewed her with considerable trepidation. The Dutch, Gallic, and German barbarians viewed her with some beneficence, more of a gentler form of death and transformation. She is seen by them as Mother Holle; a being of pure Nature, being helpful in times of need, but vengeful upon those who cross her or transgress natural law.